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However, it clearly influenced the genre, with gameplay centered on climbing ladders between different floors, a common element in many early platform games.
A difficult game to learn, Space Panic remained obscure as an arcade game, but the unauthorized clone Apple Panic was a hit for home computers.
Another precursor to the genre from was Nichibutsu 's Crazy Climber , which has the player scaling vertically-scrolling skyscrapers.
Donkey Kong , an arcade game created by Nintendo and released in July , was the first game to allow players to jump over obstacles and across gaps, making it the first true platformer.
Donkey Kong was ported to many consoles and computers at the time, notably as the system-selling pack-in game for ColecoVision ,  and also a handheld version from Coleco in This title laid the groundwork for other two-player cooperative platformers such as Fairyland Story and Bubble Bobble.
Beginning in , transitional games emerged that did not use scrolling graphics, but had levels that span several connected screens.
David Crane's Pitfall! Smurf: Rescue in Gargamel's Castle was released on the ColecoVision that same year, adding uneven terrain and scrolling pans between static screens.
Manic Miner and its sequel Jet Set Willy continued this style of multi-screen levels on home computers. The first platform game to use scrolling graphics came years before the genre became a trend.
As part of a nascent genre, its development was not strongly influenced by existing conventions, nor was it said to be a major influence on games immediately after it.
Jump Bug offered a glimpse of what was to come, with uneven, independently suspended platforms and levels that scroll both horizontally and vertically.
The Apple II game Track Attack includes a scrolling platform level where the character runs and leaps along top of a moving train. Only a few home systems of the early s had hardware support for smooth background scrolling—most notably the Atari 8-bit family.
Nevertheless, B. The same year, a scrolling platform game appeared on the Commodore 64 and Atari 8-bit computers called Snokie.
Based on the Saturday morning cartoon rather than the maze game, Namco's Pac-Land was a bidirectional, horizontally-scrolling, arcade platformer with walking, running, jumping, springboards, power-ups , and a series of unique levels.
Nintendo's platform game Super Mario Bros. Its success as a pack-in led many companies to see platform games as vital to their success, and contributed greatly to popularizing the genre during the 8-bit console generation.
Sega attempted to emulate this success with their Alex Kidd series, which began in on the Master System with Alex Kidd in Miracle World , a platformer that featured horizontal and vertical scrolling levels, the ability to punch enemies and obstacles, and shops where the player could buy power-ups and vehicles.
The environments are varied, including mountains, caves, oceans, forests, and underwater segments. The original Wonder Boy in was inspired more by Pac-Land than Super Mario Bros , and featured skateboarding segments that gave the game a greater sense of speed than other platformers at the time,  while its sequel, Wonder Boy in Monster Land , took the series in a new direction by combining action-adventure and action role-playing elements with traditional platforming.
Scrolling platformers went portable in the late s with games such as Super Mario Land , and the genre continued to maintain its popularity, with many titles released for the handheld Game Boy and Game Gear systems.
Because of their small size, technical constraints, and blurring associated with the LCD technology, fast-paced action-based platformers were more difficult to develop for these handheld systems.
Because of this, many early handheld platformers leaned towards slower-paced play styles and a greater emphasis on puzzles.
One of the first platform games to scroll in all four directions freely and follow the on-screen character's movement is in a vector game called Major Havoc , which comprises a number of mini-games, including a simple platformer, a shoot 'em up sequence, a landing sequence, and a Breakout clone.
In , Enix released an open world platform-adventure game, Brain Breaker. Another platform-adventure released that year, Pony Canyon 's Super Pitfall , was critically panned for its vagueness and weak game design.
That same year Jaleco released Esper Boukentai , a platform-action sequel to Psychic 5 that scrolled in all directions and allowed the player character to make huge multistory jumps, which were necessary to navigate the giant, vertically oriented levels.
In , Capcom 's Mega Man introduced non-linear level progression where the player is able to choose the order in which they complete levels.
This was a stark contrast to both linear games like Super Mario Bros. GamesRadar credits the "level select" feature of Mega Man as the basis for the non-linear mission structure found in most open-world, multi-mission, sidequest -heavy games.
The advent of bit home consoles marked an evolutionary step for the genre. By the time the Genesis and Super NES launched, platform games were the most popular genre in home console gaming and were seen as vital for winning the console war.
There was a particular emphasis on having a flagship platform title exclusive to a format, featuring a mascot character.
The title was only modestly successful, and Sega realized it needed a stronger mascot to move Genesis units. That same year, Capcom released the platformer Strider , which scrolled in multiple directions and allowed the player to summon artificial intelligence AI partners, such as a droid, tiger, and hawk, to help fight enemies.
In order to fend off the new competition, Sega released Sonic the Hedgehog. Sonic featured large stages that scrolled effortlessly in all directions, as well as all manner of uneven terrain, curved hills, and a complex physics system that allowed players to rush through its levels with well-placed jumps and rolls.
Lastly, there was the game's eponymous main character. Whereas prior platforming mascots tended to be either middle-aged men or young children, Sega decided to characterize Sonic as a teenager, with a rebellious personality in order to appeal to older gamers,  and super speed to help show off the Genesis' hardware capabilities.
The game proved to be a massive hit, was a successful pack-in with new systems, and cemented the view that platform games would make or break a console.
The Sonic character was seen as a new model for mascots in the early s, particularly for his perceived attitude, which characterized him as a rebel.
This attitude soon became the status quo, as companies attempted to duplicate Sonic's success with their own brightly colored anthropomorphisms.
These mascots, which included Gex , Mr. Although there had long been important platform games on home computers, a second generation of platform games for computers appeared alongside the new wave of consoles.
In the late s and early s, the Amiga was known as a stronger gaming platform than IBM PC compatibles , thanks to its more powerful stock video hardware and sound hardware.
Games like Shadow of the Beast and Turrican showed that computer platform games could rival the graphics and sound of their console contemporaries.
Prince of Persia , originally released for the Apple II in , long after that system's heyday, featured an unprecedented level of animation.
The abundance of platformers for bit consoles continued late into the generation, with successful games such as Vectorman , Donkey Kong Country 2: Diddy's Kong Quest , and Super Mario World 2: Yoshi's Island , but the release of new hardware caused players' attention to shift away from traditional 2D genres.
The 2D Rayman was a big success on bit consoles. Castlevania: Symphony of the Night revitalized its series and established a new foundation for later Castlevania games.
Oddworld and Heart of Darkness kept the subgenre born from Prince of Persia alive. The difficulties of adapting platform gameplay to three dimensions led some developers to compromise by pairing the visual flash of 3D with traditional 2D side scrolling gameplay.
These games are often referred to as 2. The game featured levels and boss characters rendered in 3D, but retained 2D gameplay and used pre-rendered 2D sprites for regular characters, similar to Donkey Kong Country.
Its sequel improved upon its design, featuring some 3D effects such as hopping between the foreground and background, and the camera panning and curving around corners.
Meanwhile, Pandemonium and Klonoa brought the 2. In a break from the past, the Nintendo 64 had the fewest side scrolling platformers with only four; Yoshi's Story , Kirby The Crystal Shards , Goemon's Great Adventure , and Mischief Makers —and most met with a tepid response from critics at the time.
The term 3D platformer usually refers to games that feature gameplay in three dimensions and polygonal 3D graphics. Games that have 3D gameplay but 2D graphics are usually included under the umbrella of isometric platformers , while those that have 3D graphics but gameplay on a 2D plane are called 2.
The first attempts to bring platform games into 3D used 2D graphics and had an isometric perspective. These games are nearly as old as the genre itself, one of the earliest examples being Sega's Congo Bongo in The first platformers to simulate a 3D perspective and moving camera emerged in the early-mids.
An early example of this was Konami 's platform game Antarctic Adventure ,  where the player controls a penguin in a forward-scrolling third-person perspective while having to jump over pits and obstacles.
It was notable for being one of the first stereoscopic 3-D games. It allowed players to move in all directions, but it did not allow movement along more than one axis at once; the player could move orthogonally but not diagonally.
Its characters were pre-rendered sprites, much like the earlier Clockwork Knight. The game played very similarly to 2D platformers, but it was considered a true 3D title, and let players walk up walls and on ceilings.
It was a moderate success, and spawned a sequel called Bug Too! Entitled Fade to Black , it was the first attempt to bring a popular 2D platform game series into 3D.
While it retained the puzzle-oriented level design style and step-based control, and bore a strong resemblance to its predecessor, it did not meet the criteria of a platform game, and was billed as an action adventure.
Fade to Black set the stage for other series, such as Metroid and Duke Nukem , that gradually shifted away from the traditional platform formula while retaining many of its gameplay conventions.
There was a great deal of pressure on Sony, Sega, and Nintendo to release mascot platformers before the holiday season.
Sony chose to adopt an existing project by developers Naughty Dog , a small developer at the time, who had recently released the questionable Way of the Warrior.
The move paid off; their game, Crash Bandicoot , beat Nintendo's new console to market in North America and was released in time for the holiday in Japan.
Crash remained Sony's unofficial mascot for the next several years before switching to multi-platform releases in the following console generation.
Sega did not fare as well. Their project, titled Sonic Xtreme , was to have featured a radically different approach for the series, with an exaggerated fisheye camera and multidirectional gameplay reminiscent of Bug!
Its development was rocky, due in part to conflicts with Sega Enterprises in Japan and a rushed schedule, and the game never made it to market.
Beginning in the s platforming games began to transform from pseudo-3D to "true 3D" experiences, the distinction being constraints on the degree of control the player over the character and camera.
Rendering of 3D environment from angles controlled by the user necessitates that the graphics hardware be sufficiently powerful, and that the art and rendering model of the game can be viewed from an arbitrary angle.
The improvement in graphics technology allowed publishers to produce such games, but introduced several new issues; for example, if the virtual camera can be positioned arbitrarily, it must be constrained to prevent it from clipping through the environment.
In , a small developer called Exact released a game for the X computer called Geograph Seal. The game was a fully 3D polygonal first-person shooter hybrid with a pronounced platform jumping component.
Players piloted a frog-like mech that could jump and then double-jump or triple-jump high into the air, as the camera panned down to help players line up their landings.
In addition to shooting, jumping on enemies was a primary means of attack. The following year, Exact released their follow-up to Geograph Seal as an early title for Sony's new PlayStation console.
Jumping Flash! The frog-like mech was traded in for a more cartoony rabbit mech, called Robbit. The second strategy is to immediately send a trap at the star guard after they receive the inbounds pass.
This allows the second trapping defender to close out and set the trap in a good position after only a few short steps. The goal of this is to get the star guard to pass the basketball out of the trap.
You can use this trap at any player at any time as a great change-up to keep the opponent unsure about what your team is going to do.
This means that the offensive team will move all offensive players into the front court except the player dribbling the basketball up the court and the player passing the basketball in.
The thought-process behind this tactic is that by clearing out there will be no help defenders to jump switch or to trail the dribbler and trap on the sideline.
If the opposition inbound the basketball to their primary dribbler, you can immediately send a double team at them using the inbounds defender to get the ball out of their hands.
This will force them to pass the basketball to a player who is usually not accustomed to bringing the basketball down the floor. If they see a clear floor ahead of them and take off in a speed dribble, this can be another great opportunity to push the basketball to the sideline and set a blind-side trap.
Even if the inbounder sprints off to the opposite end of the court you can still choose to leave a help defender in the front court. If the dribbler chooses to dribble up the sideline, the help defender trails and sets a blind-side trap as usual.
If they dribble towards the middle of the floor, the help defender can close out with high hands and force the dribbler to make a tough pass or pick up the basketball.
The easiest way for the coaches and players to distinguish between the different variations is to use colors to identify which type of press to use.
Players will still use the jump switch if the point guard dribbles towards the middle of the court, but the help defenders do not leave their opponent to trap.
This variation can be useful for young players still learning the run and jump defense to get them experience using the jump switch without the complexity of trapping and rotations.
It can also be effective for teams that have been trapping on the sidelines and now want to give their opponent a different look.
Front defenders start behind their direct opponent, pressure the basketball, and then either trap on the sidelines with a help defender or jump switch when the basketball is dribbled towards the middle.
The switching player must immediately turn and sprint to guard the open player. Strengths 1. Weaknesses 1. Run and Jump Defense Rules 1.
Roles and Responsibilities X1 on-ball defender The main responsibility of the on-ball defender is to put a massive amount of pressure on the basketball.
If the point guard dribbles towards the middle of the floor they must be ready to jump switch with the on-ball defender.
X2, X3, and X5 rotation defenders The other three players on the floor are initially responsible for denying the easy pass up the floor by playing their opponents side-by-side.
Inbounding the Basketball As the opposition is in-bounding the basketball, your team must have one defender pressuring the in-bounds pass, and the other four defenders should be matched up in man-to-man.
If the offensive players screen for each other, the defenders simply stay behind and switch. Advancing the Basketball Once the offense has inbounded the basketball and the defenders are all in the correct positions, the next step is to put a high amount of pressure on the player with the basketball.
But in the run and jump defense, we want that to happen! Trapping and Run and Jump Providing that your team has done a good job of cutting off forward passing lanes and forcing the point guard to dribble, there are three possible scenarios that can occur: 1.
The dribbler reverses the basketball to another player As spoke about previously, no player should be behind the line of the basketball.
This means that we will allow the opposition to reverse pass to another player. When they do start speed-dribbling down the sideline, three actions must occur: a.
The on-ball defender must sprint to cut the dribbler off. The first help defender must trail and set a blind-side trap. The point guard dribbles towards the middle of the court jump switch The jump switch is used when the point guard dribbles towards the middle of the court.
Getting Into Your Half-Court Defense When to switch into your half-court defense One of the most important aspects of a full-court press is knowing when to fall back into the half-court defense.
The Run and Jump defense is often a one-and-done trap. Secure every defensive rebound To be successful with the run and jump defense, your team needs to rebound the basketball.
Trap from the Middle Defender In the main section of this guide, I only talk about trapping on the sideline from behind the offensive player with the first help defender.
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Read more about it in the blog post. Excluding Off-topic Review Activity. Loading reviewsExplore these addictive jump n run games and jumping games to test your keyboard skills now! Welcome to Flonga Games! All the games on our site are FREE to play and we launch new games every day. You can play thousands of free online games including action, life, puzzle, skill and sports games. Gude! Jump n Run steam key free. Free Steam Keys! FREE STEAM GAMES. Games Key. Free games to download. Free CD Key. Steam Giveaways. Gude! Jump n Run is a challenging but fair Plattformer photoclubcachan.comer atmospheric and challenging levels and unlock abilities like climbing and walking on the photoclubcachan.com you ever wonder how it would be to run, jump and climb like a cat?Main Features: . Platform games (often simplified as platformer or jump 'n' run) is a video game genre and subgenre of action photoclubcachan.comrmers are characterized by their heavy use of jumping and climbing to navigate the player's environment and reach their goal. Levels and environments tend to feature uneven terrain and suspended platforms of varying height that requires use of the player character's.